Translational inhibition due to CHEAP RETIN-A the fact that the path of the excitation occurs Br neuron. recurrent inhibition     Carried intercalary brake cells (Renshaw). Axons of buy nolvadex online canada motor neurons often give collaterals (branches), ending with Renshaw cells. Renshaw cell axons terminate on the body or dendrites of the motor neuron, forming inhibitory synapses. Arousal that occurs in motor neurons travel in a straight path to the skeletal muscle, as well as collaterals to inhibitory neurons, which send impulses to motoneurons and inhibits them. The stronger the motor neuron excitation, the more excited Renshaw cells and the more intense they exert their inhibitory effect, which protects nerve cells from overstimulation. lateral inhibition    

 [ Masterweb Reports ] – “Leadership requires honesty, principle, integrity, being visionary and commitment to a cause. In developing world and every modern society, these are qualities that are used to measure persons who aspire to lead or occupy positions of Public Trust. Unfortunately, some events that polluted our ugly past drove honest people away from the nation’s Political arena. Anioma land like many Nigeria communities had her share of this dislocation; and still parades individuals who see public service as opportunity for self-enrichment rather than a fiduciary responsibility solely in the interest of the people with the exclusive purpose of providing benefits to all. These individuals who lack the essential qualities of good leaders are the ones impeding the progress and development of their communities and Nigeria. I must tender my candid apology to earnest few in this group as I do not intend to paint all personages in public service as dishonest and deficient in good leadership skills.” -Echiemeze Chizekene Ofili
“If we fail in our duty to say the fact because our kinsmen are involved, we are preparing the ground for the destruction of the Country...” …Chief Obafemi Awolowo.

Leadership requires honesty, principle, integrity, being visionary and commitment to a cause. In developing world and every modern society, these are qualities that are used to measure persons who aspire to lead or occupy positions of Public Trust. Unfortunately, some events that polluted our ugly past drove honest people away from the nation’s Political arena. Anioma land like many Nigeria communities had her share of this dislocation; and still parades individuals who see public service as opportunity for self-enrichment rather than a fiduciary responsibility solely in the interest of the people with the exclusive purpose of providing benefits to all. These individuals who lack the essential qualities of good leaders are the ones impeding the progress and development of their communities and Nigeria. I must tender my candid apology to earnest few in this group as I do not intend to paint all personages in public service as dishonest and deficient in good leadership skills.

I would like to state here that I am not a leader. I do not and have not practically aspired to lead any group. And quite frankly, I am not interested in doing that at all. However, I do have good followership skills and I have observed that millions of Anioma people share this same attribute. They know good leaders and are easily able to identify one. However, I do not know many communities in the world where persons who have put their personal interests above the collective good of their communities would hope or aspire to be rewarded with higher responsibilities or offices. This ugly scenario is currently playing out in Anioma. A few Anioma representatives who have no inkling of what public service is about are unashamedly flaunting their incompetence and hypocrisy that are so visible to the same people they have grossly short-changed.

According to our forefathers: “Experience is what you gain from your own actions; wisdom is what you gain from the experience of others”. Anioma people have seen how they have been badly represented over a decade by those falling over themselves, and spinning to be rewarded with higher offices. Anioma and Delta have learned wisdom from the experiences of states in the South-West Nigeria; they have seen developments and innovations in education and governance in South- South States of Edo, and Rivers States. They have observed active young men and women of their generation threw away corrupt selfish leaders in the Middle East and Arab nations. And just recently in the Unites States of America Presidential election, they saw how ordinary men and women can achieve extra-ordinary feats when common folks trump big money and hypocrisy for personal integrity and individual liberty.

The greatest risk to actualizing cohesion and rapid development in Anioma is Anioma Politicians. Sounds simple, yet it remains an area Anioma elders are unwilling to tackle. Except for Dr. Ibe Kachukwu, who has been laboring at the grass root and assiduously communicating the purpose of governance and public service to Anioma politicians, other Anioma elites are showing little concern about rots in their home state. On the other hand, Anioma elders at home rather than speaking out against the greed that has overcome their lands have joined the “lootocrats”. Jostling for the kill and personal gains, they have formed long queues behind various gladiators who are seeking to run as Governors come 2015.

There is a great need to reminisce on the circumstances that produced those who presently occupy Anioma slots in public service and leadership positions. It is important that we evaluate whether they have represented core Anioma values and interests, or whether in their duties and official capacities they have promoted their personal interests above public interest.

An unbiased appraisal of their stewardship for its benefit to the people shows abysmally poor performances that would keep generations to come wondering how we ended up with a gang of rapacious bandits and rogues masquerading as leaders. But if we must reclaim the future for our kids, we as individuals must determine the type of leadership we need. And the first logical step towards this goal is by dispatching, retiring and consigning these political jobbers to the sad part of Delta/ Anioma history and sordid past.

The sacred red soil of Anioma land and the spirits of those who were murdered in cold blood in order to foist rogue leadership on Anioma people cry for justice every day. Therefore, if there are no doubts in our minds that present Anioma community leaders in partnership with the appointed and elected representatives have not performed in the greater interest of all (and evidences abound everywhere for the blind to see); It would be most disingenuous for Anioma people to reward any of these folks with a higher office. Not after they have raped our sacred land by plundering our common wealth.

These individuals who have connived with strangers to disenfranchise Anioma communities, and benefited through contract awards and political appointments; and who subsequently have enriched themselves at the expense of Anioma people, do not merit any support for a higher office on behalf of Anioma nation. Anioma culture and values do not reward bad behaviors and the noble men and women of Anioma land will resist any call to support these bad eggs amongst them or whoever had misrepresented them in the past or present for any future appointments or elections. They must be resisted no matter the amount of money they may throw around, and in defiance of powers behind them, or the height and prominence of the position they occupy.

Anioma people worldwide are ready, alert and eagerly yearning for a leadership that will articulate a clear vision for Anioma nation. Without this vision it would be impossible to face the future as one people in the emerging Nigeria nation of six geopolitical zones. Anioma needs unpretentious leadership that would rally all the different interests and accommodate opposing views by building coalitions for common good of the people. They can no longer afford to be represented by sons and daughters who have constantly betrayed public trust, or have had their fingers in shoddy dealings that have appearances of corruption or such acts, or have allegations proven or not hanging over their heads.

An informed and articulate generation of Anioma young men and women has emerged and anxiously waiting for Anioma elders to close their ranks and make the judgment call on whether these folks are the best Anioma can provide Delta State, whether they are credible enough to continue to represent Anioma; or whether Anioma should look outside for credible leaders.

Anioma people are not oblivious of the fact that a good chunk of these elders they so expect to make the judgment call have soiled their hands in dinners with these rogue leaders. The people are aware of some elders in competing Anioma groups and whose source of funding are from Anioma rogues politicians.

Anioma youths do not ask that they return their loots but will sound a note of warning that those who connive with gangsters to loot of their commonwealth will go down with their patrons on the day of reckoning. They must look them in their eyes and tell them that the age of transparency is here and that it will be no longer business as usual. And that there will be no hiding place after they have been defeated because, they must account for their deeds while in office. The days of reckoning will come and just like their past bodies, justice must take its full course… it is fast approaching.

In our time, we have seen how the most peaceful communities suddenly turn violent overnight. Therefore, those who take the docility of Anioma people for granted should not be surprise to wake up one morning to discover that the peace they so much took for granted was no longer guaranteed. Anioma nation has host of respectable men and women better than the present opportunists who parade themselves as leaders. Honorable and respectable men can be found everywhere in Anioma land. Great and selfless Anioma personalities abound from the valleys of Ukwu Nzu in Aniocha North Local Government Area, across the bank of Ologodo River in Ika Kingdom; and through the hills of Ogwume in Ndokwa West.

Decent and honorable personalities with exceptional characters can be found in every nine local Government Areas of Delta North Senatorial District (DNST). It is therefore illogical to expect that Anioma people would continue to look up to the usurpers who have done little or nothing to improve their lot of millions of unemployed Anioma graduates roaming the streets; who are doing nothing to alleviate the sufferings of thousands of sick elders and seniors without social safety nets; and who are selfishly carting away their resources when thousands of primary school pupils study on cold grounds and under leaking roofs, and dilapidated schools buildings. The time to call a conference of Anioma Associations and community Development Unions to sit down and design a blue print and way forward for Anioma people has come. Anioma youths have long lost confidence in present leadership tussle among our elders on one hand, and the political opportunist on the other. There is a gaping vacuum for visionary leadership yearning to be filled in this land of revolutionaries. We cannot exhume Reverend Nwadie Martins or Sir Dennis Osadebay from their graves to come fill this vacuum. Good men and women must take up their mantle to rally Anioma people to rebrand public service and politics as social works with power as against the present Chop-I-Chop mentality.

The deprivation, disenfranchisement and level of poverty visited upon Anioma land by successive administrations in connivance with Anioma swashbucklers have got to an unimaginable level. If the people do not show their anger, this wickedness will note abate. Anioma sons and daughters home and abroad have EQUAL stakes in the project of protecting their commonwealth and projecting individual freedom, self-expression and dignity for all. Therefore, everyone must join hands to reclaim the mandate for credible Anioma representation or Anioma leadership will remain in the hands of second-rates for a long time.

And if our elders do not see the hand writing on the wall, or are looking the other way because they are overwhelmed by the rots in the system; Anioma youths must gear up, summon courage and employ the power of social media to mobilize for new leadership. Now the tools are available. It will be productive to seize the opportunity of the technology of social media communications to advocate for good governance.

Now is time to start some soul searching. It is also time for praise singers to advise their masters to reconsider their warped values; and respect the unique qualities of principle, honesty, ethics, integrity and visionary leadership for which our forefathers and post- independence leaders were known. Now is the time to demonstrate that Anioma people still hold and respect these values. And there is no better way to demonstrate this in a democracy than using mobilization and voting through the ballot to retire and confine to history, the present rogues who have misrepresented Aniomas as fraudulent people before our nation and other nations of the world.

History does not record anywhere that progress comes by electing into highest office incompetent characters or hawkish and egocentric persons who have exhibited total disregard for collective interest and people’s welfare. In the words of our forefathers” when a moth wears the appearance of a wasp, we infer that the imitation is intended to deceive insectivorous animals which prosecute the moth but avoid the wasp” and that “Ebu gba nwata ofu nzizi okpi, ogba oso.”

Echiemeze Chizekene Ofili ( ) reports.

*Photo Caption - Map of Nigeria showing Anioma

 [ Masterweb Reports ] – Though General Obasanjo is part of our problems as a nation, he has a distinct character of commenting bluntly on issues. This was the case when the former president warned of an imminent revolution in Nigeria, if the business of governance continues as usual. He expressed fears that "Nigeria will witness a revolution soon unless government takes urgent steps to check the growing youth unemployment and poverty.
There is no doubt, that we the Nigerian youth have no confidence in the present crop of rulers in Nigeria. We are under no illusion, that they do not have our interest at heart. We are positive, that if nothing drastic is done we will continue to suffer and wallow in poverty while they continue to indulge themselves and their families at our expense.

Indications and signs pointing to the failure of the rulers of Nigeria are abound. One needs no soothsayers to know that all is not well, if a country as rich as Nigeria has a 72 percent youth unemployment rate.

A Nigerian graduate begins to sense a bleak future ahead while serving the compulsory and irrelevant one year national youth service corps scheme. It is then that he/she will go for months without receiving his/her monthly allowance and without any explanation. I know many corp members that had to rely on the goodwill of their host communities to feed themselves because of the inability of those concerned, to ensure that they receive their allowance as at when due.

Graduation in Nigeria has seized to have it required significance, as far as finding a means of livelihood is concerned. Because its only those considered extremely lucky that find jobs with their qualifications within 2 to 3 years after graduation. Some unfortunate one's who were unlucky not to have learnt a trade, go for as long as 10 years without jobs. All these problems regarding job search surprisingly affects the masses only, for the children of the ruling class and their cronies change jobs at will the moment an opening becomes available. Its only after they have sorted out the best and more promising jobs, that the crumbs are then left for the masses to occupy.

The other section of Nigerian youths whom have chosen to learn a trade to better themselves rather than acquiring a certificate that doesn't guarantee a daily bread, also face challenges and artificial obstacles created by years of corruption and gross selfishness of nigerian rulers. From Nigeria's return to democracy in 1999 to date, Nigeria has had more than 500 youth empowerment programmes created between the federal, states and local governments that have so far yielded no positive results. As a matter of fact, we the Nigerian youths see those empowerment schemes as avenues for local politicians And their cronies to corner the remaining crumbs being passed down from the top in the name of the destitute Nigerian youths. Anyone conversant with the process involved in the shady empowerment programmes knows that, the list of beneficiaries are usually filled with ghost names created by local organisers at the expense of the hard-working Nigerian youths.

These series of challenges and dashed hopes, turned a large amount of Nigerian youths into Okada riders. This trade was at one time the highest employer of Nigeria's teeming youths. To further demonstrate their lack of sympathy for the plight of the unemployed, some state governments have now banned the Okada trade without offering any tangible alternative to thousands of the grounded Okada riders.

This and other anti youth policies too numerous to mention has demonstrated the government's lack of genuine interest in the welfare and progress of the Nigerian youths. The fuel subsidy removal protests held all over the country early this year should have served as an eye opener to the government. They should have listened to the voices of the youths that braved intimidation, cold and sunshine to protest a policy we consider anti people. They instead connived with some so called labour leaders to feed us lies and deception. They came up with a bogus SURE programme that they know is not feasible considering their greed and selfishness. Those who disregarded Obasanjo's warning are indeed too blind to see, they are too deaf to hear and too dumb to understand the echoes of revolution in the making.

Revolt we shall if things continue the way they are, because we are fed up and tired of unfulfilled promises year after year while our rulers and their cronies feed fat at our expense. Nigeria is our country too, so we deserve to benefit from its riches as everyone else. We are not asking for handouts, nigerian youths are hard-working and industrious. All we need are opportunities and a corrupt free nation to excel.

Amiru Adamu, Publisher of Northern Wind Magazine reports.

*Photo Caption - National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) members at a parade

 [ Masterweb Reports ] – In June this year, a 28 year old Nigerian, Celestine Ebelechi was attacked by a mob and died in police custody. He was attacked after a dispute with an electric bicycle driver over a fare. This happened in the city of Guangzhou. The city of Guangzhou has over 200,000 Africans as residents, of whom about 30,000 are Nigerians. Discrimination and abuse of Africans in China is not new. During the cold war, it was hidden and papered over in the name of international solidarity. Today it is difficult to hide. The story is the same on the continent of Africa itself. There has been several reports of Chinese workers managers abusing their African workers without any repercussions. In Zambia, African workers were abused and killed at the copper mines without any repercussions. As opposition leader, current Zambian President Sata has railed against Chinese exploitation of Africans. In Nigeria, DRC, Sudan, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, etc the story is the same. What is disturbing and perplexing is that African leaders have turned a blind eye to these transgressions. In China, Africans claim that when they complain to their respective embassies about the abuse, they are told to keep quite.  On the continent, the leaders haven't reacted either.
It seems that some African leaders have  got carried away by a few Chinese dollars, that they are willing to mortgage their dignity. I am not against economic cooperation with the Chinese, but I am against swapping the old colonialism with a new one. We should remember that China is still a totalitarian state, not a democracy. Despite its economic ascendancy, Chinese citizens don't have freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom of religion, cannot criticize their government, and do not have the option of choosing a political party. The communist party remains the only political party in the country.  Indeed some African leaders who might want to be president for life, might see the Chinese as valuable allies since they might be reluctant to criticize, given their own political background. African leaders need to address this issue now and aggressively. Africans do not want another master/slave relationship for all the money in the world. During her current trip to Africa, Secretary of State Hilary Clinton has stated “partnership not patronage”.  To the Chinese, Africans should say, “partnership not domination”.

African Caribbean Institute reports.

*Photo Caption - Dr. Leonard Madu, President, African Caribbean Institute (  ).

 [ Masterweb Reports ] –Gov. Peter Obi said that Anambra State, in a matter of days, would be literary turned into a huge construction yard, with the magnitude of construction work the State will witness. He said this yesterday while inspecting the on-going massive channelization of flood water at the UNIZIK junction Awka.
Obi who paid an unscheduled visit to the site accompanied by the Commissioners for Works and Utilities, Arc. Callistus Ilozumba and Dr. Emeka Nwankwu respectfully, said that most of his inspection of projects would be without prior notice to contractors to assist him gauge their seriousness.

Obi took the opportunity to reveal that he had ordered payments to contractors as he would not accept any excuse for lethargy among them. " I stayed awake till 3:30 am this morning looking purely into files dealing with various road contracts as not to accept any excuse.

Obi said that construction would not be limited to road as, according to him, work is on- going at the Anambra Hotel and Convention Centre, rebuilding of many schools, rehabilitation be many water projects, the second Onitsha Business Park, among others. He said that plans had been concluded to start the construction of hotels, shopping Malls and Convention centers at Akwa and Nnewi.

One among many jubilant residents who came out en masse to welcome the Governor, Mr. Chuma Okoye, expressed happiness over the scope and quality of work, which he said would provide a lasting solution to flood problem in Awka and enviros.

*Photo Caption - Gov. Obi (right), with his Commissioners for Works and Utilities, Arc. Callistus Ilozumba ( middle) and Dr. Emeka Nwankwu( left) , during the inspection of channelization of flood water at the UNIZIK junction, Awka.

 [ Masterweb Reports ] - A visit to Okerenkoko, in Gbaramatu clan of Warri South West Local Government Area of Delta State is still dreaded by many people who are conversant with the notorious role it played in the days of militancy in the Niger Delta region. So, an inspection tour of projects executed by the Niger Delta Development Commission, NDDC, in Okerenkoko, Kurutie and Ugborodo communities through the meandering creeks of the delta is not an assignment for the faint hearted.
Although Apostle Oluba Tikiwei, one of the leaders of Okerenkoko Federated Communities, would want visitors to feel at home in the island, the reality is that the eerie feeling that one is in a zone with serious security challenges still persists. Okerenkoko is still wrapped in an aura of fear and mystic. It is still perceived as the hotbed of militancy, three years after the Joint Military Task Force (JTF) stormed the area to dislodge the dreaded forces of Government Ekpemupolo, alias Tompolo, the leader of the ruthless Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta [MEND]. Tikiwei and other community leaders of the town feel pained about the negative perception of Okerenkoko as a militants’ stronghold. “We are peaceful and law-abiding people like Nigerians in other parts of the country. All our people are asking for is development. We contribute enormously to the economy of Nigeria, so we expect that basic amenities like water and schools should be provided for us,” Tikiwei said. It was against this background that Chief Solomon Ogba, the representative of Delta State on the board of the NDDC, recently led a team of other officials of the interventionist agency and journalists into the belly of the tiger so to speak. For three days, high ranking officials of the commission traversed the creeks and open water-ways in Warri and Escravos, to inspect NDDC projects in some of the coastal areas of Delta State. On arrival at the Okerenkoko jetty, a group of young men waited anxiously, apparently trying to figure out if we were friends or foes. One of them had a video camera that was recording every move we made right from the landing point.

In a way, the people of Okerenkoko may be right in saying that they are being misjudged by those of us who are still petrified by the thought of dynamites going off and guns booming. When our speedboat anchored at the jetty after a bumpy ride on rough waters, we saw a people that were suspicious of visitors and cautious in dealing with them. They were, however, not hostile. That helped to shore up our confidence and wiped out the impression that the island is a “no go area.’

Ogba inspected the 1.8-kilometre shore protection project in Okerenkoko, which had reached an advanced stage. He said there was need to increase the tempo of work at the shore-lines. Thus, he directed the contractor to see him within 24 hours to straighten out some issues concerning the job. The engineer on site, Mr. James Joshua promised that the sand-filling of the shore-line would be completed in March 2013.

Perhaps, the NDDC team got a friendly treatment because of the past performances of the commission in the Gbaramatu kingdom. They may not forget in a hurry that the NDDC built and commissioned a health centre for them in 2007. Prior to that, the entire Gbaramatu kingdom had no modern health care facility.

According to the NDDC Managing Director at the time, Mr. Timi Alaibe, the Okerenkoko Cottage Hospital, which cost over N65 million, saved the people from the dangerous practice of self-medication and the hazardous boat trips to Warri whenever anyone took ill or when women were in labour. Okerenkoko and indeed the entire Gbaramatu Kingdom, is host to the Shell Petroleum Development Company, SPDC, which has numerous flow stations at the Jones Creek.

Another reason the Ijaw people of Okerenkoko would be happy with the NDDC is that work has started on a very important road that would link the community with Omadino town, which is just about three kilometres from Warri. According to Ambassador Austin Oniyecum, one of the prominent Ijaw leaders in the area, the Omadino-Okerenkoko road will reduce the stress and cut the distance of travelling on water. “It takes over two hours to travel from Omadino to Okerenkoko now, but the road will reduce that time to only 20 minutes. That is why we consider the project as very important,” he said. However, this important road link suffered a setback when the Omadino community asked for a re-alignment of the route to make way for a new Christian university that is being planned for the community. The NDDC Delta State representative said he was not happy that the community asked for the re-alignment of the road, a decision, he said was bound to delay the project unduly.

The envisaged delay notwithstanding, Ogba assured the people of Omadino and Okerenkoko as well as other coastal communities that the NDDC would not relent in its efforts to provide development infrastructure for them. He said: “We can assure you that the NDDC is determined to make a difference in the lives of the people. We will continue to build new roads and bridges as well as complete on-going reclamation and shore protection projects.” Chief Ogba inspected other projects in Kurutie and Ugborodo communities. He expressed delight at the pace of work at the Kurutie-Gbaramatu 16-kilometre road with four bridges. He said it would link several communities in Gbaramatu kingdom.

The engineer supervising the project, Mr. Andrea Battitelli explained that the project also covers internal roads in Kurutie. He said that sharp sand for the bridges was already being dredged from salt-free water in Warri, from where it would be transported to the site. “Members of the communities are cooperating with us and this gives us confidence that we will deliver the project in 36 months,” he said.

Mr. Christian Ubene, a trader in the town, said that the road was an answer to the prayers of many communities in the area that were totally surrounded by water. “I have been doing business in this community for many years and transportation has always been a major headache," he said.

Unlike Kurutie and Okerenkoko where work was progressing appreciably, the situation at Ugborodo in Escravos was different because the contractor had since abandoned the shore protection and reclamation project. The NDDC consultant for the project, Elder G. O Mebaghanje said that the contractor had only done 10 per cent of the 2-kilometre stone boulder protection before he absconded.

Mr. Victor Omunu, one of the vocal opinion leaders in the area, decried the conduct of the contractor, whom he said collected over N1billion for the job and barely scratched the surface, lamenting that the contractor, Foby Nigeria Limited, disappointed and short-changed the people.

Omunu said that the poor performance of the contractor had rubbed off negatively on the NDDC, adding that it would take a complete turnaround to change the perception of the people about the commission. Pa Wawe Agba, an elder in the community, agreed that the credibility of the NDDC was on the line because previous promises made by the commission to the people were not fulfilled. “This is not the first time NDDC officials will visit us and make promises that the shore protection project will be done well. We want results not promises,” he said.

The NDDC board member assured the Ugborodo community, which hosts Chevron facilities in Escravos, that the commission would ensure that the shore protection work was continued and completed. “We have already determined the contract and the board is at the point of re-awarding it to a more competent contractor,” he said.

Chief Ogba also commissioned some of the detached two bedroom bungalows built by Chevron Nigeria Limited (CNL) for the Itsekiri Regional Development Committee (IRDC). His choice for the assignment was informed by the fact that NDDC was part of the committee that packaged the 100 housing units spread across 23 Itsekiri communities.

The NDDC representative said he was impressed by the standard of the houses, considering that they were cited in the rural area. “I agree that Chevron has done a lot but the people are still going to ask for more. If Chevron has built what they have in Lekki, Lagos, here in Niger Delta, I am sure the operational cost for Chevron would have been reduced. Let Chevron increase the level of funding.”

It takes a visit to coastal communities for anyone to begin to appreciate their plight. One of the youths in Ugborodo, who simply identified himself as Johnson, said that nobody would want to spend weeks in the creeks. He said that those who have the means, run away from the area to live in Warri. “Living in the creeks is nothing but tortuous. That is why we are crying that government should develop our area. We deserve some basic amenities as people from whose land oil is drilled to sustain Nigeria,” he said.

Mr. Ifeatu Agbu reports from Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Photo Caption - Map of Nigeria's Niger Delta Region showing its composite 8 states, including Delta State.

 [ Masterweb Reports ] – “In furtherance of our contributions towards the attempts to give Nigeria and Nigerians a people-oriented Constitution, the leadership of International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law, again, wishes to bring to the attention of your public committee the existing ouster clauses in the Chapter Four of the Constitution of Nigeria 1999 for immediate amendment so as to bring them in conformity with regional and international standards. As you may know, ouster clauses are those immunity and impunity oriented sections, subsections and paragraphs deliberately inserted into the constitution or statutes either to frustrate the application and enforcement of their mother provisions or to provide an escape route under the law for….” –Intersociety

Ref: Intersociety/NG/002/012/HOR/NA/ABJ/FRN

The Clerk/Secretary, House of Reps Committee on Constitution Review
Honourable Victor Afam Ogene, Member, Representing Ogbaru Federal Constituency
Room 0.28, House of Reps New Building Extension, National Assembly Complex
The Three-Arms-Zone, FCT, Abuja, Nigeria.

Dear Clerk/Secretary,

Ousting The Ouster Clauses In The Chapter Four Of The Constitution Of Nigeria 1999

Above subject refers.

(Onitsha-Nigeria, Sunday, November 18, 2012)-In furtherance of our contributions towards the attempts to give Nigeria and Nigerians a people-oriented Constitution, the leadership of International Society for Civil Liberties & the Rule of Law, again, wishes to bring to the attention of your public committee the existing ouster clauses in the Chapter Four of the Constitution of Nigeria 1999 for immediate amendment so as to bring them in conformity with regional and international standards. As you may know, ouster clauses are those immunity and impunity oriented sections, subsections and paragraphs deliberately inserted into the constitution or statutes either to frustrate the application and enforcement of their mother provisions or to provide an escape route under the law for their violators usually the State actors.

Ouster clauses are inherent in the Constitution of Nigeria 1999 especially in her Chapters Two and Four. Those in the Chapter Four have been responsible for high incidences of police killings/ torture, long pretrial detentions or detention without trials, long detentions arising from committal proceedings, abandonment/death of gunshot victims and abandonment/ non-State compensation of the victims of violent crimes in Nigeria, etc. The notorious Order 237 of the Nigeria Police Force, under which it kills Nigerians mindlessly for sheer reasons of crime fighting and prevention, is constitutionally backed by relevant subsections of Sections 33 and 35 of the Constitution. These subsections are in conflict with their mother sections and inconsistent with the African Charter on Human & Peoples’ Rights, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights, the UN Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime & Abuse of Power, the Basic UN Principles for the Use of Firearms by the Law Enforcement Personnel and the UN Code of Conducts for the Law Enforcement Officers, all of which Nigeria has either signed, ratified or domesticated.

The US Constitution, proclaimed in 1776 and enacted for American public in 1789 has undergone various amendments including her 14th amendment of July 28, 1968 so as to be brought in tune with the yearnings and aspirations of Americans taking into account modern realities. Her libertarian concept (rights of US citizens first) and eminence over other indigenous and foreign laws is still well pronounced all over the world. In a like manner, the egalitarian concept of the EU Rights Convention (recognition of the rights of Europeans side by side with the rights of the non-Europeans) is also traditionalized. The prominence and eminence of the Nigeria’s 1999 Constitution over other indigenous and foreign laws is clearly stated in the case of Gani v IGP/FGN. Practically speaking, the country’s Constitution must at all times be the worthy mother of all laws under her midwifery by way of periodic credible and popular amendments otherwise she runs the risk of being a mother without breasts. The Constitution under reference must at all times be brought in conformity with the regional and international standards. The yearnings and aspirations of Nigerians to be captured in periodic Constitutional amendments such as the ongoing are local contents that must be purified so as not to be repugnant to the international standards. It is, therefore, fundamentally incontestable that some subsections and paragraphs of the 14 sections of the Chapter Four are repugnant to the regional and international rights and jurisprudential norms. As a result, we dutifully recommend for the re-working of the following subsections and paragraphs under the Chapter Four:

1. Under Section 33(1): Right to Life, its subsection 2 contains ouster clause to wit: A person shall not be regarded as having been deprived of his life in contravention of this section if he dies as a result of the use, to such extent and in such circumstances as are permitted by law of such force as is reasonably necessary:

33(2) (a) for the defence of any person from unlawful violence or the defence of property;

33(2)(b) in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained; or 2(c) for the purpose of suppressing a riot, insurrection or mutiny

Our Observations: Within the contemplation of the 1999 Constitution; our questions are: what is 1. Reasonably necessary permitted by law? 2. What constitutes unlawful violence under which a Nigerian can be killed extra-judicially? 3. What is riot or insurrection?

Answers to these questions are not provided by Part IV of the 1999 Constitution under Interpretation, Citation & Commencement (definition section). Unlike reasonable time which is defined by Section 35(5), none of them is constitutionally defined, thereby creating room for their abuse and misinterpretations by relevant State-actors, particularly police officers. For instance, among many war and crime experts, it is agreed that war is an act of violence with more than 999 casualties. Also, empirically speaking, conflict is different from dispute.

Therefore, we recommend that those undefined terms should be constitutionally and unambiguously defined. Also, in the modern riot control trends, live bullets are no longer in use, but rubber bullets and other non-lethal human body control kits. Insurrection as an act of war with its globally defined weapons of war and insurrection as an act of non-violent protest with instruments of civil protest should be constitutionally differentiated and stated. Under Section 33(2)(b) the death of a citizen in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent the escape of a person lawfully detained; it should be constitutionally stated that the use of lethal weapons and maximum force (guns and other deadly weapons) in the course of any State arrest particularly with respect to non-violent crimes is forbidden. The only global exception or defence to this is the invocation of the right to self defence if under deadly attack with the application of force proportionate to one applied against those State-actors under attack.

Under the foregoing circumstances, the doctrine of Intervening Force should no longer be made a blanket defence for State and non-State actors. For instance, if a passerby gets killed by a bullet fired by a State-actor in the course of exchanging fire with his or her violent attacker, he or she should be sanctioned for unprofessional conduct and tried for manslaughter, because he or she is not trained and armed to miss his or her professional targets. These are in line with the spirit and letters of the UN Code of Conducts for Law Enforcement Officers and the UN Basic Principles for Use of Firearms by the Law Enforcement Personnel. The victim if alive should be treated promptly and unconditionally by the State. If the victim dies, the State should adequately compensate his or her family with public apologies for misuse of public procured weapons. Specifically, the use of guns and other deadly weapons to carry out the arrests of suspects suspected of committing non-violent offences or offences carrying the penalties of fines, one day to six months imprisonment and six months to three years imprisonment, that is to say strict and statutory liability offences, simple offences and misdemeanors, should be constitutionally forbidden.

Further, for the Constitution to sanction the death of innocent citizens in the name of effecting lawful arrest is socially disastrous because by its present implication, citizens can be killed by State-actors while effecting arrests arising from commission or suspected commission of simple offences which carry minimum judicial penalty of an hour and maximum of six months. Offenders of strict and statutory liability offences like traffic and sanitation misconducts which can result in lawful arrest can also get killed extra judicially by State-actors under the guise of resisting arrest or intervening force, likewise in the course of arresting suspects suspected of committing the offences of misdemeanor, which can attract maximum judicial sanction of three years and minimum of one year. Killings of this nature including roadblock/check point killings as well as house raids killings should constitutionally be treated as murder with adequate compensations and proper public apologies paid to, and tendered to the victims’ families by the State.

It is also socially and globally abominable for the Federal Republic of Nigeria to sanction the killing of an escapee or escapees from barrack or prisons detentions. Such right to kill should be abolished in the Constitution except where such custodies especially prisons are violently revolted against with revoltees and/ or their external conspirators attacking same with deadly weapons such as guns and machetes. In such situations, it is globally recommended that the force to be applied must be proportionate with that of the attacking felons. Excessive and disproportionate use of force in criminal justice system is globally forbidden. Instead of the Nigeria police officers killing their detainees within this constitutional levity, the escaping suspects can be prevented by applying force that will make it difficult for them to escape. Any injuries sustained by the escapees in the process should be promptly and unconditionally treated by the State and if they escaped, technological tracking devices including biometrics technology can be deployed to re-arrest them. Such escapees should be declared wanted as well. These are the global trends and Nigeria must not be exception. The present case whereby gunshot victims are refused medical treatments by private and public hospitals and clinics in Nigeria should be constitutionally forbidden. Wounds arising from gunshots or machete cuts inflicted on both violent crimes’ suspects and victims should be treated by the State unconditionally because Nigeria has inherited criminal justice system that makes the State the sole protector, compensator, arbiter and punisher of victims and perpetrators of violent crimes. Therefore, it is our recommendation that the entire Section 33(2) and its paragraphs should be amended.

Under Section 34: Right to Dignity of Human Person (right against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatments), its subsection 2 and paragraphs under forced and compulsory labour should be amended to include where in the course of performing State sanctioned forced or compulsory labour, death or injuries occur, the families of the dead victims should be adequately compensated by the State and the injured expressly and unconditionally treated by same. The State here should mean the authority responsible for the forced or compulsory labour such as the Federal Government of Nigeria in respect of the National Youth Service Corps. It should also be constitutionally stated that forced or compulsory service shall not be used in obtaining any confessional statements from criminal investigations. Subsection 2(a) under any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court should be amended to remove…or order of a court.

To cure Nigerian Judiciary of its awaiting trial sickness, Section 35(1)(f)(i) under Right to Personal Liberty, which reads provided that a person who is charged with an offence and who has been detained in lawful custody awaiting trial shall not continue to be kept in such detention for a period longer than the maximum period of imprisonment prescribed for the offence, should be deleted because it utterly contradicts the principle of fair hearing to jail the accused/defendant before his or her conviction/sentencing. Speedy trial is the hallmark of the fair hearing doctrine.

Section 35(4)(1)(a) which reads any person who is arrested or detained in accordance with subsection (1)(c) of Section 35(for the purpose of bringing him or her to court for trial) shall be brought before a court within a reasonable time, and if he is not tried within a period of –two –months from the date of his arrest or detention in the case of a person who is in custody or is not entitled to bail; in the case of a person who has been released on bail, he shall without prejudice to any other proceedings that may be brought against him, be released either unconditionally or upon such conditions as are reasonably necessary to ensure that he appears for trial at a later date. It is our recommendation that this subsection should be amended to read any person who is arrested for committing or on suspicion of committing any offence with capital punishment prescribed in a written law including life imprisonment and detained by the State for two months without trial should be released unconditionally. In accordance with the foregoing, subsections 7(a) and 7(b () should be amended.

The secularity of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in matters of Right to Conscience, Thought & Religion should be strengthened. To this effect, Sections 38 and 10 of the Constitution should be reworked.

Section 42(3) of the Constitution under Right to Freedom from Discrimination should be amended to lift the restrictions imposed on persons of disability especially the physically challenged persons from being appointed or elected into public offices. Even in the army and police, they can be trained and deployed in administrative and non-combat departments.

The enemy property under Section 44(1)(g) should be constitutionally defined.

There is need to also amend Section 45 of the Constitution so as to bring it in conformity with the areas recommended for amendments.

Extra: Like we recommended in our first submissions of November 12, 2012, there shall be a constitutional provision for adequate compensation and protection of the victims and witnesses of the violent crimes in Nigeria. A provision should also be provided in the Constitution for prompt and unconditional medical treatments by the State of the victims of gunshot wounds whether they are State-actors, suspected violent criminals or innocent victims. After these amendments have been effected, it is our further recommendation that related enforcement and penalty Acts of the Federation should legislatively be revisited so as to bring them in conformity with the said sections of the Constitution. A Bill of Rights for violent crimes’ victims & witnesses should also be created. A provision should be created in the Constitution for the establishment of Nigerian Civil Society Endowment Fund , whereby a percentage of the country’s annual earnings will be allocated into same for the growth and development of Nigerian Civil Society Organizations especially those working for the promotion and protection of democracy, public security, civil liberties, rule of law, gender justice, children’s rights and public health issues. An Act for the establishment of its Commission shall be enacted.

For: Intersociety- Nigeria

Emeka Umeagbalasi, Chairman, Board of Trustees
08033601078, 08180103912,

*Photo Caption - Citizen Uchenna Anthony killed at roadblock by the NPF in 2010

 [ Masterweb Reports ] - Gov. Obi has once again assured Anambra North Senatorial Zone of his Support for them to produce the next Governor. He said this yesterday during his tour of the Senatorial Zone yesterday. He said his commitment to support them was because of the promise he made to them while he was contesting. "beyond the promise, it is fair and equitable that you produce the next Governor going by the fact that since Anambra State was created, over 20 years ago, the zone is yet to produce the Governor as if they are not part of the State," Obi submitted.
Speaking further, he charged them to bring out their best for the Job, those. According to him, have enviable pedigree and requisite character to deliver quality service to the people of the State.

The visit which took the Governor to all the 7 Local Government areas of the Zone- Oyi, Anambra East and West, Ayamelum, Onitsha North and South and Ogbaru- according to him, was a routine visit designed to allow him interact directly with the people of the State."I always feel fulfilled each time I am with you and talk directly to you and get feed back from you. This is one of the ways through which I am opportune to let you know that in spite of the office, that I am still one of you, care for you, and want the best for you," Obi said.

Obi who flagged off four roads in the State on Saturday took the opportunity of the visit to re-assure the people that he would double his efforts at execution of projects contrary to the widely held views that a Governor preparing to leave office does less job. He said he had the financial war chest to execute all the projects lined up by his Government, some of which are roads, Onitsha Hotel and Convention Centre as well as similar facility at Awka and Nnewi, shopping malls for Onitsha, Awka and Nnewi , Anambra's Three Arms zone comprising Government House, State Assembly Complex and High Court, among many other projects.

The Governor tasked the people to take possession of any project sited at their places and monitor their execution closely.

At Anambra West, the Transition Committee Chairman, Mr. Augustine Chukwurah commended the Governor for being the father of the State in fact and in words. He said that the way he handled the flood crisis which affected all the Local Government in Anambra North ensued that casualties were reduced to barest minimum even as he took care of the displaced probably as no other Governor did in the flood affected communities in Nigeria.

*Photo Caption - Governor Peter Obi

 [ Masterweb Reports ] – The Vice Chancellor, Federal University of Oye, Ekiti State, Ven. Prof. Chinedu Osita Nebo, OON, NPOM, has said that for Nigeria to achieve vision 2020 it entails personal transformation in all the citizens.

He posited this recently at the University of Nigeria Nsukka(UNN) at the memorial Anniversary Lecture of RT. Honourable Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, GCFR, PC,The Owelle of Onitsha while presenting a lecture on “ Transformational Leadership and the Quest for the National Transformation.”

He decried the current state of insecurity, moral decadence and poverty amongst others in the country which according to him is our “National Dilemma”.

According to him, he said there would be no transformation in Nigeria until the individuals are transformed.

He said, “ Nigeria is under a siege that holds us hostage and until we kill pleasures and look inwardly, national transformation would remain a mirage.

“ we must transform our mindset in order to bring transformation in this nation.”

Furthermore, Nebo added that Nigeria needs servant leaders like Nnamdi Azikiwe who would stand firm against all societal ills.

He said, “leadership is to lead right and to live right. The leaders of Nigeria should learn from Azikiwe and not just keep loathing public funds.

He said leaders must be competent and altruistic, incorruptible, passionate about vision, responsive to staff needs and must enlighten the public and make them see that they are owners of the government.

He said, Nigeria is a failed nation because of the system practiced and that transformation can only come if leaders are accountable to the people.

He therefore enjoined the leaders to be servant leaders while giving his A-Z of Transformational Principles and to use their position to transform this nation just like Azikiwe did and not using their positions as an avenue to enrich themselves through negative ways.

Also speaking at the occasion, The Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Prof. Onwuliri, said Nigeria can only be transformed if every Nigerian contribute in their own little way where ever they find themselves and not just blame government officials.

Other eminent Nigerians who graced the occasion were Chief Dr. Alex Ekwueme, GCON, Former Vice President, Federal Republic of Nigeria, H.R.H. Alfred Nnnaemeka Achebe, MFR, CON. Obi of Onitsha, Prof Mrs.Uche Azikiwe, Professor Bartho Okolo, The RT. Rev. A.E. Agbo(JP), Bishop of Nsukka Diocese amongst others.

Victor Igiri reports.
*Photo Caption – Map of Nigeria

[ Masterweb Reports ] - Council of Igbo States in Americas (CISA) in collaboration with WACHET (a non-profit based in the US) and support of Ohaneze and Igbo World Assembly (IWA), will in March 2013 hold an International retreat on Igbo Global Agenda. The retreat is to be held in Igbo Farm Village in Staunton, Virginia, USA, March 22 - 23rd, 2013. This will be the first such retreat (of its kind) by CISA and also first of its kind anywhere in the world outside Igboland. Important dignitaries from Nigeria and all over the world are expected to participate in this maiden event. The programme of events, speakers/keynote speaker and event brochure advertisement rates will be announced shortly on this Medium.

This is an event everybody, not only Igbos should plan to attend. It is an event in a typical African village atmosphere, a rare occurrence outside the shores of Africa. It is African of Igbo of Nigeria taste – if you are also thinking of food and hospitality at the village, only your attendance will confirm it. There will be a variety of African dishes that will be served at the retreat and in addition music and cultural dances would package the atmosphere into a typical African village as in Chinua Achebe’s “Things Fall Apart”. Mark your calendars so you do not miss the event and stay tuned for more information on the retreat.

*Photo Caption - Children on tour of Igbo Farm Village, Staunton, Virginia, USA.

 [ Masterweb Reports ] – The race for various positions in Ohanaeze Ndigbo from local government to National levels has commenced.
The election will hold between late November and December 2012. Already an electoral committee has been set up to midwife the election. The constitution of the body zones the offices of the President-General, Secretary-General, Deputy President-General and Deputy Secretary-General. Among the top contenders for the Office of President-General are Chief Iga Igariwey, the present Deputy President-General, Dr Sam Egwu - a former governor of Ebonyi state, Dr Offiah Nwali, Chief Nweke Anyigor and Dr Aja Nwachukwu. The position is zoned to Ebonyi state and all the contenders are from the state.

The office of Secretary-General is zoned to Imo state; former Ohanaeze Deputy Secretary-General Dr Joe Chigoziem Nwaorgu is gunning for it. Other less visible candidates for the position include Dr Chidi Osuagwu - a lecturer in FUTO, Owerri, Prof Ezeadi and Chief Levi Oguakwa.

For the Publicity secretary, an old dogged horse, Ohanaeze activist/organiser and well known writer Comrade Chuks Ibegbu is gunning for the position which is however yet to be zoned. Ibegbu hails from Abia State and has been a tested hand in the Apex Igbo body. Other candidates for the postion may emerge as the contest gathers momentum.

The candidates for other positions will be known in the near future.

Igbo Information Network (IIN) reports.

*Photo Caption - Map of Igboland (homeland of Ndigbo of Nigeria)