Translational inhibition due to CHEAP RETIN-A the fact that the path of the excitation occurs Br neuron. recurrent inhibition     Carried intercalary brake cells (Renshaw). Axons of buy nolvadex online canada motor neurons often give collaterals (branches), ending with Renshaw cells. Renshaw cell axons terminate on the body or dendrites of the motor neuron, forming inhibitory synapses. Arousal that occurs in motor neurons travel in a straight path to the skeletal muscle, as well as collaterals to inhibitory neurons, which send impulses to motoneurons and inhibits them. The stronger the motor neuron excitation, the more excited Renshaw cells and the more intense they exert their inhibitory effect, which protects nerve cells from overstimulation. lateral inhibition    

Gender Inequality: The Nigerian Case

Gender Inequality: The Nigerian Case

 -Masterweb Reports
Women are more than fifty percent of the world’s population. They
perform two-third of the world’s work, yet receive one-tenth of the
world’s income and own one-hundredth of the world’s property.  They
represent a staggering seventy percent of the world’s one billion
poorest people. This is a stack development reality for our world.

My country-Nigeria has the highest population of any African country.
With a population of over 162 million, Nigeria is ranked the world’s
seventh most populated country. Of this magnitude, forty-nine percent
are female; some 80.2 million girls and women. Comparatively,
thirty-eight percent of women in Nigeria lack formal education as
against twenty-five for men and only four percent of women have higher
education against the seven percent of their male counterpart. Nigeria
ranks 118 of 134 countries in the Gender Equality Index.

Commenting on the fore, it is apparent that no appreciable development
can be made either at the local, national or international platform
without recognising girls and women as equal players in the game of life
whilst empowering, up-skilling and investing in them for a better world.
“When we empower women, we empower communities, nations and entire human
family” un Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.

We live in a world where majority of girls and women face real-time
poverty, gross inequality, molestation and injustice, which could run
through from birth to death. From poor education to poor nutrition to
violence and brutalization to vulnerable and low pay employment, the
sequence of discrimination and atrocities a woman may suffer during her
entire life is unacceptable but all too common in our global society.

In her assessment of gender inequality, Nigerian Ambassador to the UN,
Joy Ogwu, rightly noted, “It is about having half of humanity
participate. The progress of women means…the progress of the world”.

Undoubtedly, Nigeria and the World at large has in the last decade
witnessed an unprecedented expansion of women’s rights, being one of the
most profound social revolutions the world has ever seen. Couple of
decades back, only two countries allowed women to vote. Today, that
right is virtually universal. Millions of men and women around the world
now support the call for gender equality although there is much to be
done especially in developing countries like Nigeria.

Reviewing the UK Department for International Development (DFID), 2012
Gender Report in Nigeria, “Nigeria’s 80.2 million women and girls have
significantly worse life chances than men and also their sisters in
comparable societies”. This reveals the neglect of the Nigerian people
and government in tackling the issue of gender inequality despite calls
from various quarters.  It also brings to bare our frail understanding
of preparing the girl child for tomorrow’s motherhood, family and
societal challenges.

The report which succinctly stated that “Women are Nigeria’s hidden
resource”, exposed that over 1.5 million Nigeria children aged
6-14(8.1%) are currently not in school, a situation which has
effortlessly earned Nigeria the world’s largest out of school children
country-an unfortunate achievement of a robust nation. “In eight
Northern States, over 80% of women are unable to read (compared with 54%
for men). In Jigawa State, 94% of women (42% of men) are illiterate”.
Apparently, we have failed to realize that just a few investments have
as large a payoff as girls’ education.

Some traceable factors to this ill-starred development include lack of
funds resulting from wide-spread poverty, traditional and religious
inclination which place low priority on educating the girl child,
non-provision of educational facilities by government, poor funding of
the educational sector, weak educational policies, early marriage, early
childbirth, poor sanitation, ignorance amongst others.

“Nigeria has one of the lowest rates of female entrepreneurship in
sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of women are concentrated in casual,
low-skilled, low paid informal sector employment. Only 15% of women have
a bank account”. Educating and empowering the girl child implies
preparing her for future motherhood challenges that will in the nearest
future affect a family and the larger society either positively or

The huge geographical and ideological disparities of Nigeria, makes her
a unique country with though global yet slightly peculiar challenges and
opportunities, even as it relates to gender inequality. Human
development outcomes for girls and women are worse in the northern part
of the country where poverty levels are sometimes twice as high as in
the south. Nearly half of all children under age five are malnourished
in the North-East, with the figures expected to increase across the
country in the wake of national and international food crises.

On maternal mortality, the 2012 DFID Gender Report in Nigeria noted that
Nigeria has one of the highest rate of maternal mortality in the world,
a case where in every ten minutes, one Nigerian women dies in
childbirth. With about forty-seven percent of Nigerian women being
mothers before the age of twenty, the report cautioned that without
access to safe childbirth services, adequate and affordable emergency
obstetric care, improved healthcare funding, enormous political will and
civil society pressure, Nigeria’s maternal mortality rate could double
from its current 545 deaths per 100,000 live births. Note, “Every 90
seconds of every day, a woman dies in pregnancy or childbirth”, world

“Women around the world are dynamic leaders and powerful advocates of
change. But space for their leadership and broader social and political
participation remains constrained. By mid-2011, only 28 countries could
claim that women’s parliamentary representation had reached a critical
mass of 30 percent or more. Only 19 women were leading their countries
as elected heads of state or government”.

In Nigeria, only 25 out of the 360 members of the Nigerian House of
Representatives being women and only about 4% of local government
councillors are women, confirming that “women are under-represented in
all political decision making bodies and their representation has not
increased since the inception of democratic rule”.  This could perhaps
be an explanation for Nigeria’s low investment in sections that are
crucial to human development outcomes such as health and education.

It is pertinent to note that the quality of our democracy, the strength
of our economies, the health of our societies and the sustainability of
peace —are all undermined when we fail to fully tap half of the world’s
talent and potential. Where women have access to secondary education,
good jobs, land and other assets, national growth and stability are
enhanced, and we see lower maternal mortality, improved child nutrition,
greater food security, and less risk of HIV and AIDS.

In a society like ours, violence against women and girls cannot be
ignored though it is being ignored. “One in three of all women and girls
aged 15-24 have been a victim of violence. Women who have never married
are more likely to have been attacked than married women. Up to one
third of Nigerian women report that they have been subjected to some
form of violence. One in five has experienced physical violence”.

Rape, sexual insult and assault, brutalization and molestation, domestic
violence on girls and women have in recent time upsurge in Nigeria, with
victims feeling embarrassed to report such incidence to the right
agencies for justice. However, kudos must be given to some individuals,
civil society and media organisations that have continually been
campaigning against violence on the female folk, though, there is more
to be done noting that women and girls pay an unjustifiable price for
violence and discrimination, but they do not do so alone.

The United Nation Women says “Ending violence against women requires
know-how”. The know-how of judicial and health processes. In her words,
Karen Valero, Colombia said “I dream of a world where women are free
from domestic violence…Everyone is equal. We have the same rights in
every way”

Curbing and stopping violence against women requires the creation and
passage of laws regarding such violence, adopting action plans and
budgets to implement legislation, instituting prevention programmes and
protection services for women survivors, and campaigning to raise
awareness whilst instilling sound moral and religious instructions in
the girl-child towards a chaste and modest future.

Achieving gender equality and women’s rights in Nigeria and the world at
large is crucial to establishing and sustaining developments as
specifically addressed by three Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
Gender inequality has a much greater impact than the explicit MDGs.
Gender dynamics underpin all of the MDGs and to make progress, we need
specific gender-sensitive policies and action across the entire project.

In promoting women’s livelihood, the 2012 DFID Gender Report in Nigeria,
recommends that “Government policy should prioritise agriculture and
rural development, because 54 million of Nigeria’s 80.2 million women
live and work in rural areas where they constitute 60-70% of the rural
work force”. It also advocates the formulation and implementation of
laws that will assist the female gender in actualising her mandate.

On education, the report advised the creation of incentives for all
girls to complete primary and secondary education, whilst delivering
free education to girls and better funding for the educational sector
both at the state and national levels. 

This fight for gender equality can only be successful with YOU and I
playing our individual yet concerted roles towards successful women’s
leadership; strengthening women’s economic empowerment; ending violence
against women; promoting women’s participation in peace and security
processes; and ensuring that public planning and budgeting responds to
the needs and rights of women. Together-we can make it happen!

According to the Executive Director, UN Women, Michelle Bachelet,
“Gender equality must become a lived reality”.

At this juncture, let me drop my pen in recognition and appreciation of
all female: girls and women across the globe, who despite societal
inequality and discrimination have just like my mother and sisters
continued to grow in leaps and bounds…I love, respect and cherish you
all. PEACE!

Tayo Elegbede Jet reports.

*Photo Caption - Woman & man images against their standard gender symbols.