Translational inhibition due to CHEAP RETIN-A the fact that the path of the excitation occurs Br neuron. recurrent inhibition     Carried intercalary brake cells (Renshaw). Axons of buy nolvadex online canada motor neurons often give collaterals (branches), ending with Renshaw cells. Renshaw cell axons terminate on the body or dendrites of the motor neuron, forming inhibitory synapses. Arousal that occurs in motor neurons travel in a straight path to the skeletal muscle, as well as collaterals to inhibitory neurons, which send impulses to motoneurons and inhibits them. The stronger the motor neuron excitation, the more excited Renshaw cells and the more intense they exert their inhibitory effect, which protects nerve cells from overstimulation. lateral inhibition    
 

Dr. King’s Birthday, His Nonviolence Philosophy, and Occupy Nigeria Movement

Dr. King’s Birthday, His Nonviolence Philosophy, and Occupy Nigeria Movement

-Masterweb Reports
(Submission By Rev. Dr. C. Kingston Ekeke)
 
 
It has been more than 40 years since the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was abruptly and tragically assassinated at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, yet his exemplary short life, moral leadership and nonviolent philosophy continue to inspire and guide millions of people around the world in addressing critical human and social issues such as poverty, racism, inequality, injustice, violence, war, peace and freedom.   There is no doubt that the so-called ‘Arab Spring’, which is a call for change against authoritarian and dictatorial governments and a quest for freedom that began in the spring of last year in Tunisia and now spread to a dozen nations in Middle East including Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain, and Syria gained their inspiration and courage from the nonviolent philosophy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.   Similarly, the ‘Occupy Wall Street’, which began in New York City last fall, as a peaceful protest and civil disobedience against corporate greed, capitalism, economic injustice and political callousness at Washington D.C. gained its inspiration from Dr. King’s philosophy as well. 
 
The “Occupy Movement” has become a global movement and has spread to many nations around the world including the so-called ‘Occupy Nigeria’, which unfortunately has been  hijacked by CPC, SNG, Boko-Haram, gangsters, mobsters and other hoodlums that are opposed to President Jonathan and his administration.  Frankly, the so-called “Occupy Nigeria” protest should have been directed against the incessant bomb explosions and state of insecurity in the nation rather fuel subsidy removal.   The ‘Occupy Nigeria’ should not only be directed against fuel subsidy removal but must be utilized to demand for change and restructure of the nation.  The ‘Occupy Nigeria’ campaign should be directed to flush out corrupt, visionless, and incompetent politicians parading themselves as leaders.  The ‘Occupy Nigeria’ movement should be properly organized  and utilized to end bad leadership, corruption, ineptitude, myopic and visionless leaders that have doled poor leadership upon the nation and reduced the Giant of Africa to shame and hopelessness.
 
I’ll return to Occupy Nigeria, but for the moment, let’s examine briefly the nonviolent movement of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s, his philosophy and how the principle of nonviolence campaign helped him and the civil right organization, he led, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), to overcome insurmountable obstacles and to obtain very notable achievements. 
 
Every January 16, since 44 years ago, the King’s family and the Kings’ Center in Atlanta organize series of events to honor the life, leadership and legacy of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and to inspire young people to continue the dream of Dr. King.  His dream and the 1963 dream speech have not been fulfilled yet.  The fact that the United States elected the first black president, President Barack Obama does not mean that Dr. King’s dream is fulfilled.  So, across America and well over 100 nations around the world, series of events are organized to celebrate and honor his life, love and leadership.  The King’s Center in Atlanta is always the center of action and this year, the 44th Commemorative Service at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta was not different. 
  
 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Philosophy
  
 The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., is widely regarded as America’s pre-eminent advocate of nonviolence and one of the greatest nonviolent leaders in world history.  Drawing inspiration from both his Christian faith – both as a theologian and prophetic preacher and from the  peaceful teachings of Mahatma Gandhi of India, Dr. King led a nonviolent movement in the late 1950’s and 60’s to achieve legal  equality for African Americans in the United States.  While other civil rights organizations were advocating for freedom by “any means necessary,” including violence, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. used the power of words and acts of nonviolent resistance, such as protests and grassroots organizing, to achieve seemingly impossible goals.  Dr. King prophetically and courageously inspired the United States of America and the world to judge people by the content of their character and not by the color of their skin.  His powerful oratory and courageous leadership freed an entire nation from hate, bigotry and self-destruction and gave millions freedom and hope around the world. 
 
Dr. King’s philosophy was centered on what he called the ‘Triple Evils’ of society namely – Poverty, Racism, and Militarism.  According to Rev. Dr. King Jr., the “Triple Evils of poverty, racism and militarism are forms of violence that exist in a vicious cycle.”  They are interrelated, all-inclusive, and stand as barriers to humans living in the Beloved Community.” 
 
Dr. King believes that the contemporaries of the Triple Evils are as follows:
 
      ·         Poverty – Unemployment, Homelessness, Hunger, Malnutrition, Illiteracy, Infant Mortality, and Slums.  Dr. King believed that there is nothing new about poverty.  What is new, he said, is that humanity has the resources to get rid of it. He believed time has come for all-out world war against poverty.  The well-off and the secure have too many often become indifferent and oblivious to the poverty and deprivation in their midst.  Ultimately, a great nation is a compassionate nation.  No individuals or nation can be great if it does not have a concern for “the least of these.”
 
      ·         Racism – Prejudice, Apartheid, Ethnic Conflict, Ante-Semitism, Sexism, Colonialism, Homophobia, Ageism, Discrimination against Disabled Groups, Stereotypes, etc.  Dr. King believed that, “Racism is a philosophy based on contempt for life.  It is the arrogant assertion that one race is the center of value and object of devotion, before which other races must kneel in submission.  It is the absurd dogma that one race is responsible for all the progress of history and alone can assure progress of the future.  Racism is total estrangement.  It separates not only bodies, but minds and spirit.  Inevitability it descends to inflicting spiritual and physical homicides upon the out-group.”
 
      ·         Militarism – War, Imperialism, Domestic Violence, Rape, Terrorism, Human Trafficking, Media Violence, Drugs, Child Abuse, Violent Crime, etc…  According to Dr. King, ‘A true revolution of values will lay hands on the world order and say of war – this way of settling differences is not just.  The way of burring human beings with napalm, of filing our nation’s homes with orphans and widows, of injecting poisonous drugs of hate into the veins of peoples normally humane, of sending men home from dark and bloody battle fields physically handicapped  and psychologically deranged, cannot be reconciled with wisdom, justice, and love.  A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death.”
 Source:  “Where Do We Go From Here:  Chaos or Community?” by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.; Boston: Beacon Press, 1967. 
 

 
Dr. King’s Leadership and Notable Achievements
 
During the less than 13 years of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s moral leadership of the modern American Civil Rights Movement – from December 1955 until April 4, 1968, African Americans achieved more genuine progress toward racial inequality that the previous 350 years had produced.  In 1955, the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was recruited to serve as spokesman for Montgomery Bus Boycott, which was a campaign by African American population of Montgomery, Alabama to force integration of its city’s bus lines.  In 1957, Dr. King was elected president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), an organization meant to provide new leadership for the now burgeoning civil rights movement.  He served as the head of SCLC until his assassination in 1968, a period during which he would emerge as the most important moral and social leader of the modern American Civil Rights  movement.  In 1963, Dr. King led a coalition of numerous civil rights groups in a non violent campaign aimed at Birmingham, Alabama, which at the time was described as the “most segregated city in America.”  Sadly, the State of Alabama, with Arizona and Georgia remain the most racist states in the Union because of their intolerance of immigrants in their states. 
 
In 1963, at the March on Washington D.C., which drew over a quarter-million people to the National Mall, Dr. King delivered his famous “I have a Dream” speech, which created his statute as a moral leader and helped inspire the United States to act on civil rights.  Dr. King’s “I have a dream” speech, Nobel Peace Prize lecture and ‘Letter from Birmingham jail’ are among the most revered orations and writings in the English language.  In 1964, at 35 years of age, Martin Luther King, Jr. became the youngest person ever to win the Nobel Peace prize.  Also in 1964, partly due to the March on Washington D.C., the Congress passed the landmark Civil Rights Act essentially eliminating racial segregation in the United States.  The legislation made it illegal to discriminate against blacks or other minorities in hiring, public accommodations, education and transportation.  The next year, 1965, Congress went on to pass the Voting Rights Act, which eliminated barriers to voting for African Americans, who in some locales had been almost completely disenfranchised. 
 



Even though Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. marched against racial inequality, poverty, economic injustice and public policy aimed at marginalizing the African Americans in the United States, he also spoke against violence, wars, and international conflicts.   Between 1965 and 1968, Dr. King shifted his focus toward international conflict and peace.  He spoke strongly against Vietnam War.  His work against poverty culminated in the ‘Poor Peoples Campaign,” which was a broad effort to assemble a multiracial coalition of improvised Americans who would advocate for economic change.  In all these, Dr. King maintained fidelity to his principles that men and women everywhere, regardless of color or creed, are equal members of the human family.
 
Dr. King’s Legacy and Modern Day “Protests”
 
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. devoted his life to demand for equality, social justice, economic advancement, and opportunity for all.  Through organized peaceful protests and non-violent civil disobedience, Dr. King challenged the powers of institutions and United States of America government to build a more perfect union and taught that everyone has a role to play in making America and the world what it ought to be.  With his leadership, the U.S. and most nations made great strides against racial discrimination and toward increased civil rights for the oppressed.  Dr. King’s accomplishments are now taught to American children of all races, and his teachings are studied by scholars and university students worldwide.  He is the only non-President to have a national holiday dedicated in his honor and the only non-President memorialized on the Great Mall in the nation’s capitol.  He is also memorialized in statues, parks, streets, squares, churches, and other public facilities around the nation and around the world as leader whose teachings are increasing relevant to the welfare of humankind. 
 
Dr. King’s life was abruptly and tragically ended by an assassin bullet that shot him in front of his hotel room at Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968.   Later in 1968, Dr. King’s wife, Mrs. Coretta Scott King, officially founded the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center in Atlanta, Georgia for Nonviolent Social Change, which she dedicated to being a “living memorial” aimed at continuing Dr. King’s dream, philosophy and work on important social and moral ills around the world.  The late Mrs. King also fought for Dr. King’s national holiday to be instituted for his birthday and initiated the move that led to memorialize her husband’s stature at the Great Mall at the nation’s capital.  More than four decades after his death, Dr. King’s life, leadership and legacy continue to guide people around the world in peaceful protest and non-violent civil disobedience in addressing their nation’s most social, economic, political and even religious challenges. 
 
What can the Arab Spring and Occupy Movements learn from Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., non-violent and peaceful protests?  First, Dr. King was a very compassionate and loving human being.  He loved everyone irrespective of creed, color or race.  Second, he stood for the truth, love, justice and righteousness.  Third, Dr. King was not a politician, but a moral leader, a preacher and a prophet.  He was not interested in being famous and popular; he wanted to do the will of God by fighting the wrongs and injustices against the less privileged and downtrodden of the society.  Fourth and finally, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a true prophet of God.  He was deeply religious, godly and a genuine man of God.
 
Today, the “Occupy Movements” – protest and civil disobedience against social, economic, or political polices must have leaders and led by men or women of character and integrity.  For instance, the “Occupy Movements,” especially in the United States is a leaderless movement.  It has been hijacked by all sorts of people including the so-called “Anonymous”, liberalists, hoodlums, and gangsters.  The same can be said about the Arab Spring – the Middle East quest for freedom has also been hijacked by those who want to kill Christians, Jews and ‘all-out-war’ with Israel. 
 
Similar the Occupy Nigeria movement, which officially began on January 9 after President Jonathan’s administration announced the removal of petroleum subsidy on January 1, 2012, has been hijacked by CPC, SNG, Boko-Haram, gangsters, mobsters and other hoodlums.  It is really interesting to see CPC and SNG working with Boko Haram against Government fuel subsidy removal policy but will not condemn the incessant killings of women, children and innocent citizens in Northern Nigeria.  What a bunch of hypocrites! 
 
It is sad that Pastor Tunde Bakare, whom most of us admired when he started “Save Nigeria Group,” has now become a politician rather than a preacher and advocate for peace, justice and righteousness.  Initially, I did not perceive him as a politician but a moral leader, who is using his wit, wisdom and powerful rhetoric to inspire, motivate, encourage and to emancipate the masses of people - socially, morally and economically.  Surprisingly, today, he’s worse than most politicians.  After he and Alhaji Buhari lost the presidential election to President Joanthan & VP, Sambo, Pastor Bakare has been indirectly inciting the terrorist sect – Boko Haram and supporting other dangerous groups in Nigeria to destabilize the Federal government.  His utterances are hateful, negative, and poisonous.  Recently, he called on the president to resign and even called on the National Assembly to impeach the president.  Can Pastor Tunde Bakare explain and give Nigerians the reasons why the president should be impeached.  It seems to me that Pastor Tunde Bakare is now anxious and ambitious for political power.  Pastor Bakare must be made aware of the implications of his utterances, actions and behaviors.  As a man of God, and a preacher of the Gospel, I expect him to speak power to truth, justice, love and righteousness and not the blatant rhetoric and behaviors he has put on since he and Alhaji Buhari lost the presidential election. 
 
However, President Jonathan’s decision to remove petroleum subsidy on the first day of the year when most Nigerians are returning from their Christmas holidays and end of year celebrations was unwise, callous and ill-timed.  Furthermore, the nation was still mourning the despicable Christmas Day bomb blasts at the Saint Theresa’s Catholic Church, Madalla, Niger state by the radical Islamic sect known as Boko-Haram that killed more than fifty parishioners and injured many.  There were also series of other bomb blasts, suicide explosions around the country in churches and Mosques and ethnic communal killings in Ebonyi State, in which many innocent people lost their lives.  The nation ought to be outraged, angry and protesting at such vile, barbaric, and satanic massacres of innocent Nigerians at a church premises rather than fuel subsidy removal.   
 
Nevertheless, President Jonathan and his economic team should not have announced the removal of fuel subsidy without clearer explanation to the Nigerian people and serious dialogue with the labor unions.  Putting the burden of fuel subsidy on the poor masses has monumental socio-economic impact.  Even though, in the long run, it is a good public policy, however, the government must find the means to placate the huge economic and social consequences of such policy.  It is not just the price of petroleum products that are tripled in some many regions of the country but everything – transportation, food items, cost of goods and services, inflation, etc – and yet this is a country that can’t pay 18k Naira minimum wage.  There are teachers and other workers, who have not received their salaries for months – some up to 6 and 9 months.  The government should go after the beneficiaries of fuel subsidy – owners of oil wells and all kinds of oil bunkering beefcake business people and ask them to cough-out the 480B naira annually need to cushion the fuel subsidy removal. 
 
The president should simply rescind the fuel subsidy removal policy to save his presidency.  Even though President Jonathan means well with the policy, it's being introduced at a very wrong time.  Bad leadership, corruption and insecurity are Nigeria’s biggest cankerworms not fuel subsidy.  The president should be fighting for the people who overwhelmingly voted him into power rather than inflict them with hardship. 
 
Many experts on the subject matter have listed very urgent things for the president to do:  (1) fight the endemic corruption in the oil sector, (2) refurbish existing refineries, (3) build more refineries, (4) privatize petroleum refining products, etc.   This deadlock dialogue with Nigeria Labor Congress (NLC) president and Trade Union Congress (TUC) is not good for the president – you cannot win this NLC.  Moreover, the Senate and House are not in full support of the president and his administration over the petroleum subsidy removal.  Worse still, the opposition - CPC, SNG, Boko Haram and those who still didn’t believe Dr. Goodluck Jonathan won the presidential election are capitalizing on fuel subsidy removal to fight the president and attempt to discredit and destroy his presidency.  President Joanthan must simply do what is exigent and fitting to save his presidency and legacy.  
 
Let me conclude by saying that the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a giant, a global icon, an indomitable spirit, and a champion for justice and a prophet who showed us best way to fight against injustice and inequality and for the dignity of every human being.  He was a drum major for justice, an exemplary human being and a prophetic leader.  Like other leaders, they would have used their position of influence, power, prominence and authority to enrich themselves and amass millions of dollars for their children and great grand children, but he never did.  Today, his children walk the streets of America like children of ordinary citizens.  Dr. King’s life epitomized the true essence of pure and godly leadership.  He sacrificed his life for the betterment of those he led. Remarkable, genuine, true, pure, moral, courageous, legendary, and supernatural are not enough words to encapsulate his life, leadership and legacy.  What a remarkable life, legendary leadership and lasting legacy he left behind for this country and for the whole world.  In a nutshell, Dr. King was a man of wisdom, compassionate leader and a visionary.  He sacrificed to serve humanity in order to make this world a better place and in the process made history and left a lasting legacy.  Dr. King exemplified my long life call and cry for supernatural leaders – God led and Spirit empowered leadership.
 
Each of us can contribute to strengthening our own communities, cities and nations by serving in Dr. King’s honor on the King Holiday and throughout the year.  Together, we can work to create opportunities for all Nigerians, to be tolerant of each other and to love your neighbor as you love yourself, to strengthen economic opportunities for all, to ensure that credible people are elected into positions of leadership, and to assure our young people graduating from colleges and universities are guaranteed work and employment. 
 
That’s the dream of MLK, Jr.   Happy birthday to Martin Luther King, Jr. and May your dream, life, leadership and legacy live on forever. Amen.
 
Rev. Dr. C. Kingston Ekeke is a theologian, author, consultant and leadership scholar. He is the president of Leadership Wisdom Institute.